Caffeine

Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant of the methylxanthine class. It is the world’s most widely consumed psychoactive drug.

Caffeine reversibly blocks the action of adenosine on its receptors and consequently prevents the onset of drowsiness induced by adenosine. 

Natural sources include

Coffee

Green Tea

Black Tea

Yerba Mate

Clinical Studies:

A study done within the military on sleep-deprived soldiers demonstrated that caffeine significantly improved cognitive performance mood and alertness for 3 additional hours a day: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK209050/

Dosing

For the general population of healthy adults, Health Canada advises a daily intake of no more than 400 mg. This limit was found to be safe by a 2017 systematic review on caffeine toxicology.

Contraindications

Although there are no absolute contraindications to caffeine, there are some medical conditions in which caution is necessary.

Pregnancy/Lactation

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) considers 200 mg daily safe during pregnancy.

Interactions

Caffeine may have negative interactions with several conditions including heart disease, hypertension and liver disease.

Adverse Reactions

Caffeine has several physical and psychological adverse reactions in some people including gastrointestinal reactions and dehydration as well as increasing anxiety.

Drug Class
  • Stimulant
References

1. Is Caffeine a cognitive enhancer? https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20182035/